مرتب سازی نتایج بر اساس: جدیدترینپربازدید‌ترین
فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۲۰ مورد از کل ۲۴٬۶۴۳ مورد.
۱.

Demonopolization or Decompetition of Manufacturing Industries in Iran

کلید واژه ها: Industrial StructureLorenz CurveGini coefficientMonopoly

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۳
The vast bodies of studies in the word and recently in Iran have attempted to investigate the manufacturing industry structure (indicating the level of industries in terms of monopoly or competitiveness) and its trend using the various indices and methods. Despite the importance of Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient in indicating the market structure, these methods, capabilities have been neglected in determining the structure of manufacture industries in Iran by the way. Therefore, this paper attempts to indicate the structure of main manufacturing industries in Iran (including manufacture of food and beverages, manufacture of textile and production of none-metallic minerals industry) using the mentioned methods. The results of this study indicate that in the intended three years and with respect to the employment, output amounts and value added indices, these industries have concentration ratio more than 0.6. This means that they enjoy from none competitive structure. Therefore and in terms of policy, the results indicate the necessity of more consideration of policies that focus on elimination of monopoly and encourage the more competitiveness in the industrial sector.
۲.

Identifying Factors affecting the Phenomenon of Organizational loafing; Using Structural Equation Modeling & Delphi Techniques

کلید واژه ها: EnvironmentOrganizational loafingParticipationOrganizational Culture

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۶ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵
Organizational loafing is the phenomenon of a person exerting less effort to achieve a goal when they work in an organizational group than when they work alone.This phenomenon is a serious problem in today's organizations.The research seeks to explain factors affecting the phenomenon of organizational loafing. First, the elites’ opinion through Delphi technique about the indicators influencing the organizational loafing including environment, human, technology, aims and structure was collected. After designing the model, the fitting as well as editing questionnaire were measured. This research which is both quantitative and qualitative designed the final model. 180 employees of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology were randomly selected as the sample of study. Statistical analysis of research data was performed with the help of structural equation. In so doing, the questionnaire, whose validity and reliability with Cronbach's alpha equal to 834% were confirmed, was utilized to collect data. And after confirmation of normal distribution of data with the help of Smart PLS software and confirmatory factor analysis, eventually proposed model with 5 criteria and 25 indicators was approved. The results showed that the most influential factors affecting organization loafing is organization environment, followed by other indexes including aims, structure, and human factors and technology. So the managers were recommended to turn to the most important indicators affecting organizational loafing such as satisfaction, commitment and organizational culture so as to achieve efficient organizational loafing management.
۳.

Predicting Financial Distress in Tehran Stock Exchange

کلید واژه ها: Tehran Stock ExchangeFinancial DistressTax ShieldLeland and Toft model

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۵ تعداد دانلود : ۲۷
Companies incur significant costs from the financial distress. Predicting financial distress will have an important role in preventing bankruptcy. The aim of the present study is to predict the financial distress costs using the Leland and Toft models, during 1996 and 1998. This study examines data relating to 49 companies listed in the Tehran stock exchange collected over ten years from 2005 to 2014. Leland and Toft model (1996) considers the financial distress costs and benefits from the tax shield in general. However, Leland and Toft model (1998) considers the financial distress costs and benefits from the tax shield in detail by using parameter. According to the research findings, the companies working in automotive industry are bankrupt, but the companies working in food and beverage, pharmaceutical, base metals and cement industries have a good distance from financial default. The results help to improve the decision-making process and to avoid the financial distress.
۴.

The Mediating Role of Corporate Image on the Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study

کلید واژه ها: Corporate Social ResponsibilityCorporate ImageFirm Performance

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۷
This study attempted to investigate the effects of corporate social responsibility on firm performance. It also tried to identify the mediating role of corporate image on the relationship between corporate social responsibility and firm performance. This research collected data on latent constructs through a questionnaire administered survey of managers across a spectrum of industries in Bangladesh. The proposed model has been empirically tested by using SmartPls 2.0 software. Empirical results, based on a sample of 125 firms, suggest that corporate social responsibility can improve corporate image by establishing good controls and monitoring and thereby improve overall firm performance. The results of this study also suggest that executives should not dismiss corporate social responsibility and also need to take into account the mediating role of corporate image. A more comprehensive model can be developed considering some other context specific variables. This study also highlights the implications of the model.
۵.

The Origin and Limitations of Modern Mathematical Economics: A Historical Approach

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Mathematical EconomicsEconometric SocietyCowles FoundationMarshallDebreu

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۱ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲
We have first demonstrated that Debreu’s view regarding the publication of The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by von Neumann and Morgenstern in 1944 as the birth of modern mathematical economics is not convincing. In this paper, we have proposed the hypothesis that the coordinated research programs in the 1930’s, initiated by the Econometric Society and the Cowles Commission for Research in Economics with the objective of unifying economic theory, mathematics and statistics, can be regarded as the beginning of modern mathematical economics as well as econometrics. We have argued that this unification has failed to satisfactorily bridge the gap between mathematical economics and the real world economic issues. However, contrary to Marshall's view that mathematics is not an engine of inquiry in economics but is only a shorthand language, we have established in this paper that the application of mathematics in modern mathematical economics can, under certain conditions, produce economic results of value.
۶.

Inflation Bias, Time Inconsistency of Monetary and Fiscal Policies and Institutional Quality

کلید واژه ها: Time InconsistencyInstitutional QualityInflation Bias

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲
In developing countries, weak institutional quality can increase the probability of applying discretionary policies and can have a great impact on their double-digit inflation. Surico (2008) calculated inflation bias, but he considered just monetary policy and he did not pay attention to the institutions. Therefore, we design a model which considers the discretion in monetary and fiscal policies and the effect of the institutional quality. Then we calculate the inflation bias resulting from time inconsistency of monetary and fiscal policies by solving our model.
۷.

The Nexus between Economic Growth and Intra-Industry Trade

کلید واژه ها: economic growthPVARIntra Industry TradeNew Trade TheoriesDeveloping and Developed CountriesPanel Vector Autoregressive

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۷
According to traditional trade theories, foreign trade affects economic growth via several channels such as knowledge and technology spillover, improvement of resources allocation, increasing productivity and competitiveness. Within the framework of new trade theories, the effect of foreign trade on economic growth is ambiguous, and this effect depends on the combination of the different effects specially the market structure. Regarding to the theoretical ambiguity and lack of the empirical studies on the topic, the present paper investigates the relationship between intra-industry trade and economic growth by using the Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR) method for selected developed and developing countries. during 2001-2014. The results of the model estimation showed that this relationship is positive for the developed countries, while interestingly we found the negative relationship for the developing countries. Despite the latter result, there are still high potentials for the developing countries to exploit their capability in the new trade to promote their economic growth if the new trade determinants will be considered in their policy making.
۸.

The Impact of Exchange Rate Pass-Through via Domestic Prices on Inflation in Iran: New Evidence from a Threshold Regression

کلید واژه ها: Exchange Rate Pass-ThroughInflation rateThreshold RegressionEconomy of Iran

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. اقتصاد اقتصاد کلان و اقتصاد پولی قیمت ها،نوسانات تجاری،دورهای تجاری سطح عمومی قیمت ها،تورم
  2. اقتصاد اقتصاد بین الملل مالیه بین الملل بازار ارز
تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۸
There are various causes for inflation in macroeconomics. One of the important channels of experiencing inflation is through the international economy caused by external shocks. In this context, the impact of exchange rate volatilities on domestic prices known as Exchange Rate Pass-Through (ERPT) plays a vital role. The present paper deals with the impact of Exchange Rate Pass-Through on inflation in Iran. To do so, using a monthly time series data for the period 1983: 1-2014: 9, a Threshold Regression has been applied to estimate the relevant model. The results indicate a growth rate of monthly nominal exchange rate of 9.1 percent acts as a threshold rate. In other words, ERPT to domestic prices above the threshold is statistically significant whereas below the threshold, is not statistically significant. Therefore, due to the fact that one of the main functions of the central bank is to maintain a stable currency value it is very important to pay attention to the impact of Exchange Rate Pass-Through and its threshold effects in implementation monetary policies to curb inflation.
۹.

Providing functional Model for Developing Digital Entrepreneurship

کلید واژه ها: Digital entrepreneurshipInformational and Communicational Technology (ICT)Virtual Team and ICT Clusters

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۸۸ تعداد دانلود : ۸۶
Digital and Information technologies are fundamental factors for all organizations which carry out organizational and social activities levels and it causes to change the nature of business. Create what is a type of entrepreneurship that is extracted from the concept of entrepreneurship. Digital and information technology is one of electronic style of this creation. Therefore, it can be said that an organization utilizes digital entrepreneurship providing that it employs the Internet, Information and Communication Technology as devices for producing and developing in their business and trend opportunities. Present paper is planning to be identified the major structural and content factors of digital entrepreneurship. Additionally, it is programmed to study the quality constructing the digital Entrepreneurship. To achieve to hinted subjects, it has been used different theories, application survey and questionnaire of digital entrepreneurship. The sample size consists of 137 experts of entrepreneurship which were voted from Science and Technology Park in East Azerbaijan-Iran in 2013. Data analysis was carried out by using Factor Analysis, Structural Equation, Freidman Mean Ranking Test, AHP Rankin Analysis. It can be concluded that the consequences of present study illustrates that there is significant relationship between content and structural factors together. Moreover, it is existence meaningful results in AHP.
۱۰.

Effects of Job Characteristics on Counterproductive Work Behavior among Production Employees: Malaysian Experience

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۸۲
This study seeks to investigate the impact of job characteristics on counterproductive work behaviour (CWB). Three forms of CWB are identified: interpersonal CWB, production CWB, and property CWB. The regression analysis carried out on a sample of 355 employees showed mixed results. Job significant demonstrated a significant and negative relationship with production CWB. The relationship between job feedback, interpersonal CWB and property CWB was as postulated. In similar not, job identity demonstrated a significant and negative relationship with organizational CWB. However, job autonomy does not show any significant relationship. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
۱۱.

Pricing of Commodity Futures Contract by Using of Spot Price Jump-Diffusion Process

کلید واژه ها: futures contractspot pricejump-diffusionKalman FilterOil futures

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۲
Futures contract is one of the most important derivatives that is used in financial markets in all over the world to buy or sell an asset or commodity in the future. Pricing of this tool depends on expected price of asset or commodity at the maturity date. According to this, theoretical futures pricing models try to find this expected price in order to use in the futures contract. So in this article, three futures pricing models have been considered. In the first model, one-factor pricing model without spot price jump has been presented. In this model futures price of commodity is a function of spot price and remaining time to maturity. In the others, the models have been expanded by using jump-diffusion processes and stochastic jump in spot price. Then, to empirically study the models, NYMEX WTI crude oil futures price data has been used and parameters have been estimated with Kalman filter algorithm. The empirical results show that the one factor model with uniform jump is suitable to explain the crude oil spot price behavior and its futures price. This model and estimated parameters provide the useful tool to predict NYMEX WTI oil future prices.
۱۲.

The Effect of Education on Industrial Development (Evidence from Iranian Small Industries

کلید واژه ها: Small Manufacturing EnterprisesEducation ComponentDevelopment Infrastructure IndexIranian ProvincesPrincipal Components Analysis

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۳
The literature show evidence that small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) are understood as main source of technology development and employment creation. At the same time they are vulnerable to a number of restrictions such as access to finances, skilled labor and public support, while are exposed to high competition and suffer from low survival rate. This research aims to shed lights on the role that education play in the process of industrial and economic development of Iranian provinces. This research is conducted in a number of ways. First, a comprehensive literature review is conducted to gain experience from the national and international literature to identify the state-of-art research and important theories, methods and empirical results to shape the structure of this research and identify key data requirements. Second, the status of industrial infrastructure and distribution of firms by important characteristic of education is investigated. Comparison is made at the aggregate national level. Third, based on the literature findings and analysis of the industry structure, assemble a data set at the province level that is representative with good coverage of the industry sector. Also a composite Development Infrastructure Index for provinces with available ranks in mentioned component is calculated. Based on the findings, appropriate policy recommendations to improve the conditions of SMEs infrastructure and performance will purposed.
۱۳.

Comparative Study of Static and Dynamic Artificial Neural Network Models in Forecasting of Tehran Stock Exchange

کلید واژه ها: ForecastingStock Marketdynamic Neural NetworkStatic Neural Network

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۳
During the recent decades, neural network models have been focused upon by researchers due to their more real performance and on this basis, different types of these models have been used in forecasting. Now, there is a question that which kind of these models has more explanatory power in forecasting the future processes of the stock. In line with this, the present paper made a comparison between static and dynamic neural network models in forecasting (uninvariable) the return of Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) index in order to find the best model to be used for forecasting this series. The data were collected daily from 26/11/2009 to 17/10/2014. The models examined in this study included two static models (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems ""ANFIS"" and Multi-layer Feed-forward Neural Network ""MFNN"") and a dynamic model (nonlinear neural network autoregressive model ""NNAR""). The findings showed that based on the Mean Square Error and Root Mean Square Error criteria, ANFIS model had a much higher forecasting ability compared to other models.
۱۴.

Modeling Stock Market Volatility Using Univariate GARCH Models: Evidence from Bangladesh

کلید واژه ها: GARCHHeteroskedasticityVolatility ClusteringAsymmetric Volatility

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. اقتصاد اقتصاد مالی بازارهای مالی پیش بینی های مالی
  2. اقتصاد روش های ریاضی و کمی مدل های تک معادله ای مدل های سری زمانی،رگرسیون های چندک پویا
تعداد بازدید : ۹۷ تعداد دانلود : ۹۴
This paper investigates the nature of volatility characteristics of stock returns in the Bangladesh stock markets employing daily all share price index return data of Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) and Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE) from 02 January 1993 to 27 January 2013 and 01 January 2004 to 20 August 2015 respectively. Furthermore, the study explores the adequate volatility model for the stock markets in Bangladesh. Results of the estimated MA(1)-GARCH(1,1) model for DSE and GARCH(1,1) model for CSE reveal that the stock markets of Bangladesh capture volatility clustering, while volatility is moderately persistent in DSE and highly persistent in CSE. Estimated MA(1)-EGARCH(1,1) model shows that effect of bad news on stock market volatility is greater than effect induced by good news in DSE, while EGARCH(1,1) model displays that volatility spill over mechanism is not asymmetric in CSE. Therefore, it is concluded that return series of DSE show evidence of three common events, namely volatility clustering, leptokurtosis and the leverage effect, while return series of CSE contains leptokurtosis, volatility clustering and long memory. Finally, this study explores that MA(1)-GARCH(1,1) is the best model for modeling volatility of Dhaka stock market returns, while GARCH models are inadequate for volatility modeling of CSE returns.
۱۵.

The Comparison among ARIMA and hybrid ARIMA-GARCH Models in Forecasting the Exchange Rate of Iran

کلید واژه ها: ARIMAExchange RateForecasting PerformanceGARCH Family ModelsVolatility Modeling

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. اقتصاد اقتصاد بین الملل مالیه بین الملل بازار ارز
  2. اقتصاد روش های ریاضی و کمی مدل سازی اقتصادسنجی ارزیابی مدل
تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۷ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۶
This paper attempts to compare the forecasting performance of the ARIMA model and hybrid ARMA-GARCH Models by using daily data of the Iran’s exchange rate against the U.S. Dollar (IRR/USD) for the period of 20 March 2014 to 20 June 2015. The period of 20 March 2014 to 19 April 2015 was used to build the model while remaining data were used to do out of sample forecasting and check the forecasting ability of the model. All the data were collected from central bank of Iran. First of all, the stationary of the exchange rate series is examined using unit root test which showed the series as non stationary. To make the exchange rate series stationary, the exchange rates are transformed to exchange rate returns. By using Box-Jenkins method, the appropriate ARIMA model was obtained and for capturing volatilities of returns series, some hybrid models such as: ARIMA-GARCH, ARIMA-IGARCH, ARIMA-GJR and ARIMA-EGARCH have been estimated. The results indicate that in terms of the lowest RMSE, MAE and TIC criteria, the best model is ARIMA((7,2),(12)) –EGARCH(2,1). This model captures the volatility and leverage effect in the exchange rate returns and its forecasting performance is better than others.
۱۶.

Control Theory and Economic Policy Optimization: The Origin, Achievements and the Fading Optimism from a Historical Standpoint

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Optimal Control TheoryStochastic ControlAdaptive ControlEconomic Applications

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۸۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۸
Economists were interested in economic stabilization policies as early as the 1930’s but the formal applications of stability theory from the classical control theory to economic analysis appeared in the early 1950’s when a number of control engineers actively collaborated with economists on economic stability and feedback mechanisms. The theory of optimal control resulting from the contributions of mathematicians Lev Semenovich Pontryagin and Richard Ernest Bellman in the late 1950’s was first applied successfully to models of economic growth in the 1960’s by the economists who were interested in discovering the optimality properties of economic growth trajectories. It is shown that the collaborations of control engineers with econometricians in the 1970’s on the computation of optimal state and control trajectories in econometric models were the earliest attempts to demonstrate the possibility of applying deterministic, stochastic and adaptive optimal control to the numerical solution of optimal economic policies. We have explained why the collaborations of control engineers with econometricians on formulating and computing optimum system design in macroeconomic optimal planning models failed and why the economic applications of optimal control theory have proved to be more productive in the analysis of optimality conditions in mathematical economics and not in the computation of optimal trajectories in econometric models.
۱۷.

Ranking Stock Exchange Companies With a Combined Approach Based on FAHP-FTOPSIS Financial Ratios and Comparing Them With Tehran Stock Exchange Rankings

کلید واژه ها: Tehran Stock ExchangeRankingFinancial RatiosAHP–TOPSIS50 Superior Companies

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۷ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۶
Ranking of companies listed on the exchange represent their status and considered a criterion for investment. Also, it increases market's competition, development and efficiency. In this study, the fifty superior companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange were ranked based on financial ratios (liquidity, operational, leverage and profitability) using FAHP- FTOPSIS hybrid approach during the years 2013 . Initially, capital markets authorities and universities' financial masters perspectives about effect of ratios were collected by questionnaire and weighting with FAHP technique and then companies were ranked based on ratios using the FTOPSIS technique. The results indicate that there is a weak correlation between two groups of ranking. In fact, results show that the stock exchange’s selected top companies necessarily do not have higher rankings in terms of financial ratios and the firms’ financial Statements are weak approximation for firms’ superiority likelihood in the stock exchange.
۱۸.

The Co-movement between Output and Prices: Evidence from Iran

کلید واژه ها: GARCHOutputIranDynamic Conditional CorrelationPrices

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. اقتصاد اقتصاد کلان و اقتصاد پولی قیمت ها،نوسانات تجاری،دورهای تجاری سطح عمومی قیمت ها،تورم
  2. اقتصاد اقتصاد کلان و اقتصاد پولی مصرف،پس انداز،تولید،اشتغال و سرمایه گذاری تولید
تعداد بازدید : ۱۲۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۶
This paper employs a multivariate dynamic conditional correlation GARCH model, which is developed by Engle (2001, 2002), to detect the timing and nature of changes in the comovement between Iranian output and prices for the periods after Iran–Iraq war , known as imposed war . The results showed that there is a weak correlation between output and prices after imposed war and varies periodically and changes from positive to negative after imposed war and changes from negative to positive again after 2009 crisis in Iran. We conclude that there is a contagion effect of the price index on output. The predominantly negative output-price co-movement suggests that the overall price level was typically countercyclical rather than procyclical. These findings imply the presence of aggregate supply versus aggregate demand shocks and sticky prices. Supply shocks are the main causes of stagflation. To solve the problem of stagflation, governments must adopt policies to push out the aggregate supply curve
۱۹.

Economic Valuation of Cultural Goods (Case Study: Isfahan City of Arts)

کلید واژه ها: Economic EvaluationWTPChoice Experiment method (CE)Isfahan City of Arts

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۲۷ تعداد دانلود : ۲۲۴
In today’s world, no one can deny the expansion of economic influence in the various aspects of social life and economization of immaterial issues of social life is becoming more obvious every day. The valuation of cultural goods, as one of the most important economic aspects related to arts and culture, is chosen to be considered in this study. The necessity of considering the economic valuation of the arts and culture comes from the competition between different public and merit goods which seek government. Considering this, the present study is conducted in order to determine the economic value of “Isfahan City of Arts” as a cultural center which is planned to be built in Isfahan as the largest center of supplying, educating and presenting cultural and artistic events in the whole country. In order to make this happen, we need to know how people value different parts and activities of this complex. Regarding different strength and week points of various economic valuation techniques, the Choice Experiment method (CE), as one the most efficient methodologies in estimating different aspects of nonmarket goods, has been used in this study for measuring WTP estimates. The results indicate that among eleven activities (aspects) of the complex, all activities, except for galleries, had positive and significant effects on choosing designed scenarios, and among the listed activities, Concert Hall, Cineplex and Fashion Hall had, relatively, the highest willingness to payment.
۲۰.

The Sensitivity of Central Bank Independence Measurements to Inflation in Iran: A New Approach

کلید واژه ها: ARDLIranSensitivity AnalysisCentral Bank Independence

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۹۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۷
The purpose of this study is finding the sensitivity of central bank independence measurements on its impact on inflation in Iran. To this aim different measurements of the central bank independence were calculated using the indices of Grilli et al. (1991), Cukierman et al. (1992), Mathew (2006) and Dumiter (2009) for the period 1961-2012 . Although results of correlation between CBI index and inflation shows that there is a negative correlation between all CBI index and inflation, but the estimated results using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) show except for the index of Grilli et al. (1991) other indices have similar short run and long run significant negative effect on the inflation in Iran. So the CBI have the sensitivity to definition. Also, results of estimation shows that there isn’t any significant differences between the impact of Cukierman et al. (1992), Mathew (2006) and Dumiter (2009) index on the inflation. So this indices can be used interchangeably.

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